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Submission Preparation Checklist

As part of the submission process, authors are required to check off their submission's compliance with all of the following items, and submissions may be returned to authors that do not adhere to these guidelines.
  • I/We own the copyright of the manuscript or otherwise have the legal right to grant the CC BY-SA 4.0 licence to the article based on this manuscript if accepted for publication.
  • I/We confirm that I/we have the rights to the materials and data, on which the manuscript is based, to the extent necessary for publishing with CC BY-SA 4.0 licence.
  • I/We confirm that the submitted manuscript is new, has not been published in another journal, is not a translation of a journal article published in another language and is not being considered for publication in any other electronic or print journal.
  • I/We confirm that all authors agree about authorship, publication of the article, order of authors in the article, and naming of the corresponding author for all correspondence with the publisher.
  • I/We confirm that all authors have read the submitted manuscript version and agree on its contents. I/We understand that the authors are collectively responsible on the contents of the article.
  • I/We undestand that an article processing charge (APC) of 800 € must be paid on all accepted manuscripts before publication. I/We commit to publish the manuscript in Silva Fennica if accepted in the peer-review.
  • I/We report how I/we determined our sample size, all data exclusions (if any), all manipulations, and all measures in the study.
  • The text adheres to the stylistic and bibliographic requirements outlined in the Author Guidelines, which is found in About the Journal.
  • All required meta data on authors is submitted to the manuscript management system OJS, including the ORCID-identifier, if an author has one.
  • All authors accept that the following author information is published together with the published article: Name, affiliation, e-mail and ORCID identifier. We understand that these data or part of them will be submitted to the reference databases where Silva Fennica is listed.

Author Guidelines



1 General

Silva Fennica publishes significant new knowledge on forest sciences. The scope covers research on forestry and forest ecosystems. Silva Fennica aims to increase understanding on forest ecosystems, and sustainable use and conservation of forest resources.

A contribution should have broad international interest for being published in Silva Fennica. The contribution should be novel or a significant replication study as defined in point 3 below.

Submission of a manuscript to Silva Fennica is taken to imply that the manuscript has not been published in another journal, is not a translation of a journal article published in another language and is not being considered for publication in any other electronic or print journal. However, Silva Fennica accepts manuscripts that have been posted to a trusted preprint server e.g., BioRxiv. In the “Comments for the Editor” box, you must state if the manuscript has been posted in a preprint server and provide the DOI of the preprint. If the preprint has received comments, they must be submitted with the manuscript – if the platform and reviewers/commentators accept the transfer – together with your responses to the comments. Silva Fennica also welcomes manuscripts that have been reviewed in Peerage of Science. You must submit reviewer comments at Peerage of Science and your responses to the reviews with the manuscript.

Silva Fennica follows the single-blind peer-review practice, i.e. reviewers are anonymous to authors. Subject Editors and authors know each other’s identity.

Silva Fennica is an open access journal, in which the articles are published with the Creative Commons CC BY-SA 4.0 licence. You retain the copyright on your work. Silva Fennica collects an article processing charge (APC) of 800 € on published articles. An APC waiver programme exists for some authors. Read more in “Journal policies”.

Articles published in Silva Fennica are assigned to volumes and issues. That notwithstanding, new articles are posted on the website as soon as they are in their final form. All articles are published both as html files with supporting information and as printer-friendly pdf files.

Silva Fennica is published in English. You must consistently follow only one English standard (e.g. British or American English). Follow a concise scientific writing style. You are also responsible of ensuring that the manuscript does not contain grammatical, orthographic, stylistics, or other linguistic errors. Manuscripts that are not written in good English will be rejected without peer-review.


2 Article Categories

Research articles report findings of original research. They follow a structure that best fits to the research problem, e.g. when reporting experimental work, the recommended structure is Introduction – Material and methods – Results – Discussion – References. Results and discussion items should never be combined. Conclusions chapter may be separated with a title. Modelling studies must include an adequate validation of the model, verification of enhanced performance, or applications. Research article text is normally not longer than 8 000 words counted from the beginning of Introduction to the end of Discussion/Conclusions. The abstract must not be longer than 250 words (submission of longer abstracts is disabled in the system).

Review articles are literature-based critical surveys summarising and analysing particular fields or topics in forest science. If you plan to submit a review article, please, contact the Editor-in-Chief beforehand about the proposed review topic. The Editor-in-Chief may also invite renowned scientists to write a review article on a topical issue of general relevance. The abstract must not be longer than 400 words (submission of longer abstracts is disabled in the system).

Research notes report preliminary or tentative results of projects underway (e.g. test of a research methodology), or completed research with limited scope but relevant to an international readership. Research note must not be longer than 2 500 words and include more than 4 tables and/or figures. The word count is from the beginning of Introduction to the end of Discussion/Conclusions. The abstract must not be longer than 250 words (submission of longer abstracts is disabled in the system).

Data notes describe a data set deposited to a trusted open repository. They contain a clear and exhaustive description of the dataset: details of data collection (sampling, measurements, all possible modifications, exclusions if any, etc.), its content, its potential use, and all the metadata required to access the dataset. The data set must have a persistent identification (DOI, URN, Handle). List also all published articles, in which the data set has been used. Data note must not be longer than 2 500 words and include more than 4 tables and/or figures. The word count is from the beginning of Introduction to the end of Discussion. The abstract must not be longer than 250 words (submission of longer abstracts is disabled in the system).

Discussion articles put forward fresh ideas or new views about the theory and practice of science, point out problems needing the attention of researchers, or comment on topical issues. The views presented must be justified with adequate references to earlier work. Discussion articles are revised by the scientific editors of Silva Fennica. Discussion article is normally not longer than 2 500 words and includes no more than 4 tables and/or figures.

Commentaries are always invited by the Editor-in-Chief. They may ask a renowned scientist to write a comment on an important manuscript submitted to Silva Fennica or another topical issue.


3 Openness and transparency

From January 2021 onwards, Silva Fennica will apply the Transparency and openness promotion guidelines of the Center for Open Science (https://www.cos.io/our-services/top-guidelines). We will start on Level 1 of all the eight points described below i.e., we encourage good practices and reviewers are instructed to check for them. Starting January 2024, all submissions will be required to adhere to the level 2 in citation standards, data transparency, analytic methods transparency, research materials transparency, and design and analysis transparency. This level will require data, materials and code openness as a condition for publishing in Silva Fennica.

1) Citation standards refer to the use of community-based standards, such as nomenclature and reporting standards, where applicable. Silva Fennica requires e.g., that taxonomic nomenclature follows an internationally recognised database and soils are classified according to the World Reference Base for Soil Resources. If publicly available data are used in an article, they must be cited according to the instructions of DataCite in the list of references. See chapter 8 for detailed instructions.

2) You must state in a dedicated section of the article if data are available and how to access them. In principle, data should be open and you are requested to explain if they are not open. Data must be posted in a trusted open repository for wide reusability. Sometimes there are good reasons not to open data or data may need to be curated for removing sensitive information e.g., personally identifying information or exact location information of threatened species. From January 2024 onwards, Silva Fennica will request opening of data as a condition for publishing, unless you have acceptable reasons for not opening your data. You are encouraged to open your data already before the deadline. Genomic data must be open as a condition for publication already from January 2021 onwards.

3) Analytic methods or code transparency is needed for understanding how results were derived from the research data. You are required to state if your code is available and how to access it. Silva Fennica will consider the openness as the principle and deviations must be justified. Like in the case of research data, Silva Fennica will start to require code openness as a condition for publishing an article from January 2024 onwards. You are encouraged to open your code even before the deadline. You may submit short codes with the manuscript as supplementary files while extensive codes are better to deposit to a trusted open repository.

4) Research materials are the materials used for conducting the research or collected during the research but are not in a directly analysable form. Research materials may be digital e.g., questionnaires, survey instruments and scripts used in social sciences, video used in forest work research or photographs used for identifying plants. Physical materials include e.g., voucher specimens of plants collected for a particular research project or cryopreserved microbia. Collection and archival materials (e.g., plant specimens studied in a museum) must be identified so that other scientist may find them. You must state if materials are available and if not, why. See point 8.2 for these instructions.

5) Design and analysis transparency are essential for understanding how a study was conducted and analysed. You are required to state: “We report how we determined our sample size, all data exclusions (if any), all manipulations, and all measures in the study.” See point 5.7 for detailed instructions.

6-7) Preregistration of studies and analysis plans refer to depositing research and analysis plans in a trusted open repository where they get a persistent identifier. The objective is to reduce sloppy research practices. Preregistrations are not always practical in forestry field research but when they are, they should be used. Silva Fennica encourages preregistration of studies and analysis plans. You are requested to state if preregistrations exist and give the link to them if you have done preregistration(s).

8) Replication is in the heart of reproducibility. All new research findings should be verified by replicating the study, yet forms of replication may differ in different contexts. Silva Fennica encourages submission of replication studies in the following cases:

  • Direct repetition, when it is needed for verifying the results of an experiment opening new insights to the functioning of organisms or communities or those promising enhancement to forestry practice.
  • Data reanalyses that contribute towards accepting or rejecting new results.
  • Conceptual reproductions, which help to verify original research results and enhance our understanding on the generality of the research outcomes.

Read more about Silva Fennica’s openness and transparency policies in Editorials of issue 53(3) and 54(3).


4 Submission of manuscripts

4.1 Authorship

Criteria for authorship are the following:

  1. Substantial contributions to the conception of research question and design of the work; or the acquisition, analysis, and interpretation of data and results; AND
  2. Scientific writing of the work or revising it critically for sound and intellectual content; AND
  3. Final approval of the version to be published; AND
  4. Accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved.

All those designated as authors should meet all four criteria for authorship, and all who meet the four criteria should be identified as authors. Those contributors who do not meet all four criteria should be acknowledged. Thus, acquisition of funding alone, collection of data alone, or general supervision of the research group alone does not constitute authorship.

4.2 First submission

Silva Fennica uses the Open Journal System (OJS) for manuscript processing. All types of manuscripts must be submitted using the OJS page of Silva Fennica. You must register as an author to OJS. The system will guide you through the submission process. In the first submission, you must submit the complete manuscript – except supplementary files – as a single MS Word or RTF file. Make sure that the manuscript is complete with all tables and figures and that pages and lines are numbered continuously. Select article component type “Article text” for this file. No other file may have the same component type. You may also submit supplementary files (e.g. videos, databases, large tables), which will be linked to your article. Select appropriate article component types for describing your supplementary files. Supplementary files will be revised, stored, and viewed in the same format as you submit them. See chapter 9 for recommended formats of the supplementary files.

You must accept the copyright statement of Silva Fennica before submitting a manuscript.

During the manuscript submission, you must submit complete information of all authors, including affiliations, addresses, and e-mail addresses, in the OJS page. ORCID id of all authors that have one must be given. The ORCID ids will be published in the author information. Further, phone number of the corresponding author must be entered to the system.

You may propose qualified reviewers for your manuscript in the “Comments for the Editor” box. Provide the name(s), affiliation(s) and e-mail address(es) of the proposed reviewers. The final decision on reviewers to be invited is made by the handling Subject Editor.

An e-mail message acknowledging receipt will be sent to the corresponding author.

4.3 Review process

Silva Fennica’s review procedure is pre-publication, single blind, editors mediate all interactions between reviewers and authors, peer reviews are not published, review is facilitated by the journal and the reviews are owned by the authors of the reviews.

When a manuscript arrives to the Editorial System OJS, the Editor-in-Chief or the Managing Editor reviews that it fits within the scope of Silva Fennica and fulfils minimum requirements for peer-review. Manuscripts clearly out of the scope of the journal will be declined in this phase. A manuscript may also be declined if it is apparent that it does not contain any new knowledge on the studied topic. Manuscripts with poor presentation, serious linguistic problems, and those that do not adhere to the Author Guidelines of Silva Fennica will be returned to the authors for revision. If the authors decide to resubmit the revised version, it will be considered as a new submission. Manuscripts are screened for similarity using the iThenticate software. Screening results are always interpreted case by case by the Editor-in-Chief or the Managing Editor. Manuscripts deemed too similar with earlier work will be declined.

After the initial review, the manuscript is assigned to one of the Subject Editors. They screen the manuscript for contents. If they find serious deficiencies in methods or other scientific problems, they may recommend declining the manuscript without peer-review. If the manuscript passes the initial screening, the Subject Editor selects the reviewers and submits the manuscript to peer-review. Subject Editor and the authors know each other’s identity but the reviewers will work under anonymity. Normally, two reviews by qualified scientists are sought for each manuscript. The Subject Editor makes the editorial recommendation based on the reviewer reports. Final decision on publication is made by the Editor-in-Chief.

Read the more extensive description of the review process in “Journal policies”.


5 Manuscript text

5.1 First and second page

The first page of the manuscript includes the manuscript title, authors’ names and affiliations and complete contact information of the corresponding author. The second page contains the highlights, abstract and keywords.

5.2 Title

A good title is brief and informative. Do not use empty words and constructions like "A study of...", "Observations on...", and the like conveying very little to the reader.

5.3 Highlights

Highlights of each paper are included in the online table of contents and pasted below the article title in the article files. Emphasise the most important research findings reported in the article in your highlights statement. Write the highlight statements separated by semicolon (;) on top of the second page of your manuscript. The total length of highlights must not be more than 60 words.

5.4 Abstract

An abstract is a concise, independent résumé of the paper. Its purpose is to assist the reader in deciding whether it is worth reading the entire paper, to provide sufficient information for a reader who is not an expert on the topic involved, and to assist the communication of information. If your abstract is not well written, a reader will probably not read your full article. Most bibliographic databases also include the abstract.

The length of an abstract must not be more than 250 words in one paragraph for all article types except review articles, which may contain an abstract of 400 words divided into a maximum of three paragraphs. The abstract must be structured to provide sufficient information on the context, aims, methods, results and conclusions of your research. Always end the abstract with a clear conclusion. Do not use references to literature.

5.5 Keywords

The abstract is followed by 3–7 keywords. Separate keywords with semicolons (;). Do not repeat title words in the keywords. Place species names at the beginning of the keyword list followed by other keywords in alphabetical order.

5.6 Objectives and hypotheses

The aim, or general objective, specific objectives and, when applicable, hypotheses must be written out clearly in the Introduction section of the manuscript. This must be written as a separate paragraph yet without subtitle in an appropriate part of the Introduction. Most often, the best placement is at the end of the Introduction.

5.7 Materials and methods

You must report the experimental design, sampling method and procedure, how you determined sample size before the experiment was conducted, all data exclusions (if any), all manipulations, and all measures in the study. The use of graphs or flow charts is encouraged. For example, the number of replicates at every level of grouping needs to be communicated with grouped data sets, and methods that take the grouping properly into account must be used. Any non-trivial statistical analysis needs to be reported formally in the manuscript if novel, or in a supplementary file so that the research is fully reproducible based on the description; see Editorial in Silva Fennica 53(3) for more discussion. For example, in the mixed effects model you need to report the levels of grouping supported by the experimental design and the justification for the formulation of the random part for each of the levels. The procedures used for evaluating the fit of the applied model also need to be described.

5.8 Text layout

Pages must be numbered, starting with the title page. Lines must be numbered continuously throughout the manuscript starting from the Abstract. Do not use any other text formatting than those specified in these instructions. Much of the formatting must be removed or redefined when producing the publication files. Thus, extra formatting will delay publication of your manuscript.

Separate paragraphs with a blank line. Do not use automatic space before or after a paragraph.

Separate equations from the body text with a blank line before and after the equation.

Collect all tables and figures to the end of the manuscript, each on an own page. Write table heading and figure caption on the same page with the table or figure.

5.9 Headings

Use no more than three levels of headings. Do not capitalise words in the headings. Number headings as follows:




Do not number “Acknowledgements”, “Funding”, Openness statements and “References”. Separate headings from the text by a blank line before and after.

5.10 Italics

Use italics for scientific names of species, but not for expressions or abbreviations such as in vitro, a priori, et al., e.g.

5.11 Equations

Number equations continuously in parenthesis. Align the equation number to the right. Explain the symbols used before or after the equation, unless specified in connection to an earlier equation. Include a separate List of symbols in manuscripts containing many symbols. You must explain the symbols also with the equation even if you include a List of symbols. Write simple equations as text. Use of MathType is preferred for complicated equations. In the text, refer to the equations as Eq. 1, Eq. 2 etc. Follow mathematical typography when writing equations e.g., write variables in italics and refer to matrices in bold type.


6 Citation standards

6.1 Scientific Names

Use an authoritative contemporary source for scientific names. Silva Fennica requires that the following databases be used for taxonomic nomenclature:

No other sources are accepted. You must revise your taxonomy according to these sources. Name the database used for taxonomy in the Materials and Methods section. We acknowledge that no database is complete, especially in the case of tropical taxa. In the case that you cannot find your taxon in these databases using their synonym lists, give an exact reference to the source of the name used. In the case of groups with still evolving taxonomy, like insects or most microbes, use a source that best fits to your study area. Use consistently only one taxonomic database for a manuscript. Give an exact reference to your taxonomy source, preferably a stable identifier like DOI or URN in the list of references. These databases are updated constantly. Thus, it is important to indicate also the date of access to the database.

Scientific names should be in italics. Author of a scientific name must be given when a taxon is mentioned for the first time in the abstract and in the text body but not in the manuscript title, highlights, or keywords. After the first mention, the author is not used. If you use the common name of a taxon in the manuscript, you must give the full scientific name with author when mentioning the taxon for the first time in the abstract and the text body. Thereafter, the common name may be used.

6.2 Soil taxonomy

You must provide the soil classification if soils may affect the research results and always when you report field research on ecology, physiology, silviculture, etc. Use always the World Reference Base for describing soils:


No local classification is accepted. If you consider the local soil classification to be essential for communicating your research, give also the World Reference Base equivalent. The database is updated constantly. Thus, it is important to indicate the date of access. In addition to the soil taxonomy, you should provide fertility data at plot level if available.

6.3 Meteorological data

You must present basic meteorological data with a reference to the data source when weather conditions may affect the research results and always when you report field research on ecology, physiology, silviculture, etc. Refer to the meteorological data of a reliable weather station close to your study area when Give exact coordinates of the station you use, and a stable Internet address where the data can accessed. In the article, give the following minimum information of the site: average temperature of the coldest and warmest month (name the months), annual rainfall, distribution of rainfall e.g., rainy and dry months, proportion of rainfall that falls as snow, if applicable and, if available, temperature sum of the growing season and annual evapotranspiration. Information that is more exact may be provided in a supplementary file.

6.4 Biological materials and genomic data

Biological materials must be identified as exactly as possible. In field research, the studied taxa must be identified using nomenclature as described in point 6.1. In nursery, laboratory and other controlled experiments, provide enough information uniquely to identify biological materials. This calls for reporting e.g., unique accession number in a repository, or seed source, lot number, provenance and date of collection. If original genomic data are collected in the study, they must be deposited to one of the International Nucleotide Sequence Database Collaboration repositories as a condition for publication in Silva Fennica. You must refer to these materials in the manuscript with their accession number.

6.5 Laboratory techniques

Contrary to the common belief, many laboratory methods are not exactly standard but may be slightly modified by the laboratory where the work is done. Although these lab-wise modified techniques tend to give very closely matching results, sometimes the minor modifications may make the reproduction of the results impossible or may explain unexpected differences with published research. Thus, give always an easily available reference to all laboratory analyses included in your study and a detailed description of all possible modifications done in your laboratory. Silva Fennica strongly encourages adding the exact laboratory protocols as a supplementary file to the manuscript.

6.6 Units

Use only SI quantities and units. If your original data were collected using non-SI units, you must write this out in the Materials and methods section and report the conversion factors or equations used. Thereafter, use the SI unit in the whole manuscript. Use always exponential notation for units (e.g. µmol m‑2 s‑1) instead of dash. Use non-breaking spaces and hyphens within a unit.

Use euros (preferred) or US dollars for all monetary values throughout the manuscript. If the original currency is other than US dollar, it must be converted to euros. Use the conversion factor for the time of the data collection if possible. Always provide the date – at least month and year – for the conversion factor used.

6.7 Bibliographic references in the text

6.7.1 Reference format

It is important that you follow exactly the formatting instructions given here for both citing references in the text and writing the reference list because within-article links are created automatically by the publishing software of Silva Fennica. All deviations from these instructions will cause delay in publishing of your manuscript.

For references in the text, use the name-year system:

  • “Smith (1996) has shown...” or “It has been shown (Smith 1996)...”
  • Smith and Allen (2005)
  • Smith et al. (2010); If the referred source has three or more authors, it is referred to with et al. notion
  • (Smith 1996; Deleuze and Houllier 1997; Kähkölä et al. 2012); When reference is made to several publications, arrange them in chronological order. Use semicolon (;) for separating references.
  • (Finnish Forest Research Institute 2011); Where a publication has no person named as the author or editor, the name of the publisher is quoted, together with the year of publication. The term “Anonymous” must not be used.

6.7.2 Secondary references

Secondary references should be avoided and you must make a reasonable effort to find the original work. In the case of very old or difficult-to-find references, you may use a secondary reference by citing also the work where the secondary reference is cited: (Virtanen and Saastamoinen 1936 as cited by Kähkölä et al. 2012). Include both references into the reference list.

6.7.3 Unwritten information sources and traditional knowledge

Personal communications and similar sources of information must be avoided. However, an appropriate attribution for traditional knowledge must be given when applicable. This may include citation of indigenous or other traditional sources (such as people or community groups) or other unwritten communal sources of knowledge by name within the text. A more detailed description of indigenous sources must be given as a separate statement at the end of the manuscript (see point 8.4).

6.8 List of references

6.8.1 General principles

Refer only to published, available material. Avoid references to second-hand sources. If you avoid a secondary reference, include both the original work and the work, in which the original work is cited, into the list of references. Refer to unwritten indigenous knowledge in a special section of the manuscript as described in point 8.4.

For the order, structure and form of the references, consult the examples below. In addition, note the following:

  • If a publication has no person named as the author or editor, it is listed alphabetically according to the name of the publisher.
  • If a journal article is available both in print and online, give the volume and print page numbers, together with DOI. If an article is available online only, give volume (if the e-journal uses volumes), article id (if available), and unconditionally the DOI.
  • If the title of an article/a book is not in English, the English translation must be given in square brackets after the original title. If the original title is in a language that does not use Latin letters, you may give only the English translation with mention of the original language in square brackets.
  • The standard number, ISBN in books, or STRN in reports, should be given for sources of low circulation at the end of the reference.
  • Use italics for scientific names of taxa mentioned in the title. Otherwise, use only regular font in the reference list.
  • Do not translate journal names. Always use the standard abbreviation of a journal’s name (e.g., https://images.webofknowledge.com/images/help/WOS/S_abrvjt.html).

6.8.2 Order of references

  • Smith C (1996) Aspen. Timber 77: 369–384
  • Smith C (2007) Silver birch. Timber 88: 17–23
  • Smith C, Allen A (2005) Scots pine. For Manage 15: 5–9
  • Smith C, Harris B (1993) Asian pines. For Manage 3: 105–119
  • Smith C, Harris B, Allen A (2008) Sawn goods. Timber 89: 131–140
  • Smith C, Allen A, Harris B (2010) Sawn goods revisited. Timber 91: 231–240

6.8.3 Journal article

Kähkölä A-K, Nygren P, Leblanc HA, Pennanen T, Pietikäinen J (2012) Leaf and root litter of a legume tree as nitrogen sources for cacaos with different root colonisation by arbuscular mycorrhizae. Nutr Cycl Agroecosys 92: 51–65. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10705-011-9471-z. If a journal article is available both in print and online, give the volume and print page numbers, together with DOI.

Siipilehto J, Allen M, Nilsson U, Brunner A, Huuskonen S, Haikarainen S, Subramanian N, Antón-Fernández C, Holmström E, Andreassen K, Hynynen J (2020) Stand-level mortality models for Nordic boreal forests. Silva Fenn 54, article id 10414. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.10414. If an article is available online only, give volume (if the e-journal uses volumes), article id (if available), and unconditionally the DOI.

Jalonen R, Sierra J (2012) Temporal variation of N isotopic composition of decomposing legume roots and its implications to N cycling estimates in 15N tracer studies in agroforestry systems. Appl Environ Soil Sci, article id 506302. https://doi.org/10.1155/2012/506302.

6.8.4 Article in a book or conference proceedings

Joshi L, Shrestha PK, Moss C, Sinclair FL (2004) Locally derived knowledge of soil fertility and its emerging role in integrated natural resource management. In: van Noordwijk M, Cadish G, Ong CK (eds) Below-ground interactions in tropical agroecosystems. Concepts and models with multiple plant components. CABI Publishing, Wallingford, pp 17–39

Thomson LAJ, Gâteblé G (2020) Casuarinaceae genetic resources in the Pacific Islands: enhancing their contributions to the green economy. In: Haruthaithanasan M, Pinyopusarerk K, Nicodemus A, Bush D, Thomson L (eds) Casuarinas for Green Economy and Environmental Sustainability. Proceedings of the Sixth International Casuarina Workshop Krabi, Thailand, 21-25 October 2019. Kasetsart University, Bangkok, pp 31‑40. https://www.iufro.org/fileadmin/material/publications/proceedings-archive/20802-t30-bangkok19.pdf. Accessed 30 November 2020

6.8.5 Monograph

Smith SE, Read D (2008) Mycorrhizal symbiosis 3rd edition. Academic Press, London

6.8.6 Non-English original

Saarinen M, Valkonen S, Sarkkola S, Nieminen M, Penttilä T, Laiho R (2020) Jatkuvapeitteisen metsänkasvatuksen mahdollisuudet ojitetuilla turvemailla. [Opportunities for continuous cover forest management in drained peatlands]. Metsätieteen aikakauskirja, article id 10372. https://doi.org/10.14214/ma.10372. If the title of an article/a book is not in English, the English translation must be given in square brackets after the original title.

Volkov AD (2003) The bioecological basis of exploitation of spruce forests in the north-west of taiga zone of Russia. Karelian Science Centre of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Petrozavodsk. [in Russian]. If the original title is in a language that does not use Latin letters, you may give only the English translation with a mention of the original language in square brackets.

6.8.7 Preprints

Salazar Zarzosa P, Diaz Herraiz A, Olmo M, Ruiz-Benito P, Barrón V, Bastias CC, de la Riva EG, Villar R. Linking functional traits with tree growth and forest productivity in Quercus ilex forests along a climatic gradient. BioRxiv 2020.12.12.422386. [Preprint]. https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.12.12.422386. Accessed 16 December 2020.

6.8.8 Citing data sources

Valdés Correcher E (2021) Dataset used in the paper 'Search for top-down and bottom-up drivers of latitudinal trends in insect herbivory in oak trees in Europe'. Dryad [Dataset] https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.18931zcw0. Accessed 11 November 2020

Missouri Botanical Garden (2020) https://www.tropicos.org. Accessed 25 November 2020

Gill F, Donsker D, Rasmussen P (eds) (2020) IOC World Bird List (v10.2). https://doi.org/10.14344/IOC.ML.10.2. Accessed 25 November 2020

Data set citation styles may vary. As a general rule, the data set citation must include information according to the instructions of DataCite (https://datacite.org/cite-your-data.html) adjusted according to the above examples.

6.9 Notes

You should avoid using notes in the text. In most cases, the information in the note can be included in the text; if not, the note is probably not necessary. Footnotes may be used in tables (point 7.1).


7 Tables and figures

7.1 Tables

Tables are numbered continuously through the manuscript. Vertical dividers are not allowed. Prepare the tables using a table editor. Never enter a paragraph break or a line break within a table cell.

Write table heading above the table. The table heading must be self-explanatory, i.e. you must provide enough information so that a reader understands the table without referring to the text. It is especially important to state the study context in the table heading e.g., taxa studied, geographic location, treatments, etc.

If you use symbols or abbreviations in the table, all of them must be explained in a footnote to the table. Because each table must be understandable alone, you must either repeat the symbol explanations in each table – if they are few – or refer to the table where they are explained. Do not refer to a figure caption.

7.2 Figures

7.2.1 Instructions common to all figure types

All image material e.g., charts illustrating data or photographs, are considered as figures. Figures are an important part of the scientific communication. Thus, it is in your own interest to adhere strictly to the figure instructions given below. Otherwise, communication of your results may be hampered.

Figures are numbered continuously throughout the manuscript. Refer to them in the text as “Fig. 1” etc. A figure must fit on an A4 page; larger figures cannot be inspected with sufficient details even in large computer screens. Further, its printing quality may decrease seriously. A large figure may be difficult understand on screen or in print.

Silva Fennica publishes both colour and black-and-white figures. However, consider carefully if colour is necessary. Especially data charts are often clearer as black-and-white line drawings.

Always use the same identifier (e.g., symbol, column fill, line colour) for a variable, which appears in more than one figure of a manuscript.

In the first submission, paste each figure on its own page. Write figure caption below the figure. Caption must be self-explanatory and independent; references to the text should be avoided. It is especially important to state the study context in the figure caption e.g., taxa studied, geographic location, treatments. Explain all symbols used either in the figure caption or in the figure legend. You must either repeat the symbol explanations in each caption – if they are few – or refer to the figure caption where they are explained. Do not refer to a table heading or footnote.

Lettering within the figure (including the legend) must be sized adequately with the figure contents. However, lettering size must not radically differ from font size in the text. Use Arial or Helvetica font for Latin letters and numbers and Symbol font for Greek letters and mathematical symbols. Keep lettering consistently sized both within a figure and between the figures of a manuscript.

7.2.2 Data charts

Data charts are graphical presentations of data.

Aim at clarity and simplicity; avoid unnecessary effects, like 3-D and shadows. Use solid black or white or coarse line fills for columns. If you cannot separate columns or column items with black-and-white fills, use colour fills, not grey fills. Always write axis titles and units in the data chart.

Line drawings must be prepared at 600 dpi resolution. Prefer lines in solid black and use markers for differentiating small number of lines in the same graph. If you need more than four lines in a line graph, use solid colours. Do not use line weights below 1.0 point.

7.3.3 Photographs and combined figures

Photographs must be high quality colour or grey scale digital photos. Scale the photographs to 300 dpi resolution. If you combine photographs and line drawings, the complete figure must be prepared at 600 dpi resolution. If you add only a scale bar to a photograph, retain the 300 dpi resolution.

Visualisation of model output (e.g., tree architecture produced by a model) is a colour or grey-scale figure and it must be prepared according to the instructions in this point.

7.3.4 Figure copyright

The authors are responsible to acquire necessary copyright for publishing any figures that are not under their own copyright. Please, note that articles in Silva Fennica are published on CC BY-SA 4.0 license. Readers are free to copy, reproduce, distribute, and reuse articles published in Silva Fennica as long as the modified work is distributed using the same license. Thus, some publishers do not grant reuse free. You must assume all such costs, because Silva Fennica does not have funds for assisting copyright costs. If the copyright of a figure is held by someone else than you or any of the co-authors, the copyright holder's name must be published with the figure.

Silva Fennica follows the copyright law of Finland. It provides relatively wide freedom for reuse of charts if the original source is adequately credited but photographers’ rights are strictly protected. Note also that the figure you want to reuse may be under another jurisdiction. In case of any doubt, consult the Editorial Office.


8 Acknowledgements, funding and availability of research materials and data

After the text body, before the list of references, all manuscripts must have a list of supplementary files, if supplements are used, an obligatory declaration on the availability of research materials, an obligatory acknowledgement on indigenous knowledge used, if applicable, an obligatory statement on authors’ contributions, acknowledgements if needed, and an obligatory statement on funding of the research.

8.1 List of supplementary files (if needed)

Provide a list of all supplementary files. The information required is:

  • File number: Capital letter S and running number in the order you refer to the files in the text e.g., S1, S2, S3.
  • Title of the file
  • Type of file e.g., “Video in MP4 format”, “MS-Excel spreadsheet”, “Photograph in jpeg format”

8.2 Declaration of openness of research materials, data, and code (obligatory)

The manuscript must include a special section detailing the compliance with openness and transparency requirements of Silva Fennica. The statement must include:

  • Statement if your data are available and how to access them. If data are open for everyone, cite them according to the instructions of DataCite (see 6.8.8) and give the persistent identification (DOI, URN, Handle etc.). If data are available upon request, give exact information how to apply for access. If data are not available, explain why.
  • Statement if your code and other analytic methods are available and how to access them. If they are open for everyone, cite them according to the instructions of DataCite (see 6.8.8) and give the persistent identification (DOI, URN, Handle etc.). If code is available upon request, give exact information how to apply for access. If code is not available, explain why. Silva Fennica encourages submitting short codes as supplementary files.
  • Statement if research materials are available and how to access them. If digital materials are open for everyone, cite them according to the instructions of DataCite (see 6.8.8) and give the persistent identification (DOI, URN, Handle etc.). For digital materials that are available upon request and for physical materials, give exact information how to apply for access. If materials are not available, explain why.
  • Statement if the study is preregistered and if so, give the persistent identification (DOI, URN, Handle etc.) to the preregistration. Silva Fennica encourages providing the preregistration as a supplementary file with full reference to the original source.
  • Statement if the analysis plan is preregistered and if so, give the persistent identification (DOI, URN, Handle etc.) to the preregistration. Silva Fennica encourages providing the preregistration as a supplementary file with full reference to the original source.

8.3. Ethical review (obligatory when applicable)

Always when applicable, the manuscript must include a statement that an ethical review has been conducted. In that case, write out the details of the ethical approval, such as the name of the ethics committee and the reference number of the approval.

8.4 Indigenous and traditional knowledge (obligatory when applicable)

You must give an appropriate attribution for indigenous or traditional knowledge when applicable. Any traditional-knowledge notices or citation of indigenous or other communal sources of knowledge must be listed here.

8.5 Authors’ contributions (obligatory)

Here you must specify how each author contributed to criteria a and b indicated in point 4.1:

  1. Substantial contributions to the conception of research question and design of the work; or the acquisition, analysis, and interpretation of data and results.
  2. Scientific writing of the work or revising it critically for sound and intellectual content.

All named as authors are assumed to have accepted the submitted manuscript version and take full responsibility on its contents. Read detailed instructions in Journal policies.

8.6 Acknowledgements (recommended)

All those contributors who do not meet all four criteria for authorship (see our journal policies) should not be identified as authors but named in acknowledgements. According to the Silva Fennica’s authorship criteria, acquisition of funding alone, collection of data alone, or general supervision of the research group alone does not constitute authorship yet these contributors should be acknowledged here.

8.7 Funding (obligatory)

List here all funding sources of your research, whether governmental, commercial, non-commercial or your organisation’s own funds. Give exact grant numbers when applicable.


9 Supplementary files

9.1 Types of supplementary data

Silva Fennica accepts electronic multimedia files (animations, movies, etc.) and other supplementary files to be published along with your article. Examples of the type of supplementary files include but do not exclude other types:

  • model flow chart
  • short programme code, or part of a published programme code that is significantly modified
  • complete list of model equations
  • long parameter or variable list
  • complete species list in a study of plant community ecology
  • detailed weather data of the study site
  • video on embryogenesis
  • video on a forest work study
  • animation or video on landscape change over time by succession

9.2 Recommended formats

  • Audio, video, and animations: mp4 format preferred.
  • Text: MS Word or RTF format is preferred, but pdf format is also accepted.
  • Spreadsheets and other tabular material: spreadsheets must be converted to pdf if no interaction with the data is needed. If the readers are expected to do their own calculations with the data, submit the spreadsheet as a MS Excel file (.xls or .xlsx).
  • Programme code: text file without formatting
  • Figures: single figures may be submitted as jpg or pdf files. Several connected figures must be submitted in a pdf file.

Otherwise, follow the instructions given in chapter 7 above for preparing your supplementary files.

9.3 Naming of and references to the supplementary files

Name the supplementary files with four first words of your manuscript title followed by file number. Number supplementary files consecutively as you refer to them in the manuscript. Never use author name or Silva Fennica in the file name.

Each supplementary file must include a full bibliographic reference of the main article at the top of the first page of the file because supplementary files may become separated from the original context. The information must include name(s) of author(s), title of the main article, Silva Fennica, submission year, and a blank line so that the Copy Editor may add the DOI after it is assigned to the article. With this information, the original article may be located. If your supplementary file is a figure or video, add this information to the file metadata.

You must refer to all supplementary files in the manuscript text. The reference format is “...as shown in Supplementary file S3” or “...as shown in the animation of the landscape change (Supplementary file S3)”. Also list all supplementary files between the text body and reference list as described in 8.1 above.

9.4 Submitting supplementary files

You must submit each supplementary file separately from the manuscript (follow instructions in the OJS page of Silva Fennica). Select the article component type that best describes your supplementary file. However, the type of a supplementary file may not be “Article Text”. All supplementary files must be included in the first submission and they are peer-revived. If important supplementary files will be added to the revised manuscript, the review process may be started over. However, you must revise the supplementary files according to the advice given by the reviewers and editors.


10 Procedures for revised and accepted manuscripts

10.1 Submission of revised manuscript

If revisions are required, you must write detailed responses to the reviewers’ and editor’s comments in a separate file. You are expected to explain changes made to the manuscript with reference to line numbers of the changes. Prepare the responses so that they can be identified from a clean manuscript i.e., no changes marked. Justify your opinion in the cases, in which you do not follow the advice given by the reviewers.

Upload the revised, clean manuscript text, responses to the reviewer and editor comments, and any other necessary files to the system following these instructions:

  • Sign in as an author; you will be automatically directed to the “Submissions” page.
  • Click the manuscript title. You will be automatically directed to the review page of your manuscript.
  • Check that you are on the latest review round page. If not, go to the round with the highest number.
  • Select “Upload Files” from the “Revisions” bar.
  • Upload your revised manuscript, responses to reviewers, and other files, if any. Remember that one and only one file must be the Article Component “Article Text”. Select other appropriate component descriptions for other files.
  • Using the “Review Discussion” function, write a note the Subject Editor and Editor-in-Chief that you have submitted the revised manuscript.

10.2 Procedure after acceptance

After receiving the acceptance message from the Editor-in-Chief, you must submit the production files within a week. You will also receive the instructions for paying the APC unless you are covered by a waiver. Prepare your manuscript text, tables, and figures exactly according to these instructions. All corrections that the Copy Editor will have to make will delay publication of your work. Submit the manuscript and tables in a single Word file (component “Article Text”). Each table must be on a separate page - even small tables.

Double-check that your supplementary files (if included) are prepared according to the instructions in chapter 9.

Prepare the figures according to the instructions given above in point 7.2. Save each figure as a separate maximum-quality jpeg file. Minimum resolution for data charts is 600 dpi and for photographs and visualisations 300 dpi - see exact instructions in point 7.2. Name the figure with the name of first author, word "figure", and figure number. Figures must be numbered consecutively in the order they appear in the article.

Follow the submission instructions given in point 10.1 above. Upload each figure as a separate file.

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